Supraglottic Airways Compared With Face Masks for Neonatal Resuscitation: A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is the most important component of neonatal resuscitation, but face mask ventilation can be difficult. Compare supraglottic airway devices (SA) with face masks for term and late preterm infants receiving PPV immediately after birth
Data sources include Medline, Embase, Cochrane Databases, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Study selections include randomized, quasi-randomized, interrupted time series, controlled before-after, and cohort studies with English abstracts. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias and certainty of evidence. The primary outcome was failure to improve with positive pressure ventilation. When appropriate, data were pooled using fixed effect models.
Meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials (1823 newborn infants) showed that use of an SA decreased the probability of failure to improve with PPV (relative risk 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.36; P <.001, moderate certainty) and endotracheal intubation (4 randomized controlled trials, 1689 newborn infants) in the delivery room (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.56; P <.001, low certainty). The duration of PPV and time until heart rate >100 beats per minute was shorter with the SA. There was no difference in the use of chest compressions or epinephrine during resuscitation. Certainty of evidence was low or very low for most outcomes.
Among late preterm and term infants who require resuscitation after birth, ventilation may be more effective if delivered by SA rather than face mask and may reduce the need for endotracheal intubation.