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Chest compressions superimposed with sustained inflations during infant CPR

Background: Pediatric resuscitation guidelines recommend continuous chest compression with asynchronized ventilation (CCaV) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We recently described that providing a constant high distending pressure, or sustained inflation (SI) while performing continuous chest compressions (CC = CC + SI) reduces time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in neonatal and pediatric piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest.

Methods: To determine if CC + SI compared to CCaV will improve frequency of achieving ROSC and reduce time to ROSC in asphyxiated pediatric piglets. Twenty-eight pediatric piglets (21-24 days old) were anesthetized and asphyxiated by clamping the endotracheal tube. Piglets were randomized to CC + SI or CCaV for resuscitation (n = 14/group). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, carotid blood flow, cerebral oxygenation, and respiratory parameters were continuously recorded throughout the experiment.

Results: The mean(SD) duration of resuscitation was significantly reduced with CC + SI compared to CCaV with 208(190) vs. 388(258)s, p = 0.045, respectively. The number of piglets achieving ROSC with CC + SI and CCaV were 12/14 vs. 6/14, p = 0.046. Minute ventilation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, ventilation rate, and positive end expiratory pressures were also significantly improved with CC + SI.

Conclusions: CC + SI improves duration of resuscitation and increases number of piglets achieving ROSC secondary to improved minute ventilation.

Impact: Chest compressions superimposed with sustained inflation resulted in shorter duration of resuscitation Chest compressions superimposed with sustained inflation resulted in higher number of piglets achieving return of spontaneous circulation Further animal studies are needed to examine chest compressions superimposed with sustained inflation.


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