Latest publication by CSAR: This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia. Based on this review single recommendations on optimal LPVS cannot be made. Combinations of several strategies, individually applied, most probably minimize or avoid potential serious respiratory and cerebral complications like bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy.